Mar
15
2019
--

MySQL Ripple: The First Impression of a MySQL Binlog Server

MySQL Ripple

MySQL RippleJust about a month ago, Pavel Ivanov released Ripple under the Apache-2.0 license. Ripple is a MySQL binlog server: software which receives binary logs from MySQL or MariaDB servers and delivers them to another MySQL or MariaDB server. Practically ,this is an intermediary master which does not store any data, except the binary logs themselves, and does not apply events. This solution allows saving of a lot of resources on the server, which acts only as a middle-man between the master and its actual slave(s).

The intermediary server, keeping binary logs only and not doing any other job, is a prevalent use case which allows us to remove IO (binlog read) and network (binlog retrieval via network) load from the actual master and free its resources for updates. The intermediary master, which does not do any work, distributes binary logs to slaves connected to it. This way you can have an increased number of slaves, attached to such a server, without affecting the application, running updates.

Currently, users exploit the Blackhole storage engine to emulate similar behavior. But Blackhole is just a workaround: it still executes all the events in the binary logs, requires valid MySQL installation, and has a lot of issues. Such a pain!

Therefore a new product which can do the same job and is released with an open source license is something worth trying.

A simple test

For this blog, I did a simple test. First, I installed it as described in the README file. Instructions are pretty straightforward, and I successfully built the server on my Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS laptop. Guidelines suggest to install

libmariadbclient-dev

, and I replaced

libmysqlclient-dev

which I had already on my machine. Probably this was not needed, but since the tool claims to support both MySQL and MariaDB binary log formats, I preferred to install the MariaDB client.

There is no manual of usage instructions. However, the tool supports

-help

  command, and it is, again, straightforward.

The server can be started with options:

$./bazel-bin/rippled -ripple_datadir=./data -ripple_master_address=127.0.0.1 -ripple_master_port=13001 -ripple_master_user=root -ripple_server_ports=15000

Where:

  • -ripple-datadir

     : datadir where Ripple stores binary logs

  • -ripple_master_address

     : master host

  • -ripple_master_port

     : master port

  • -ripple_master_user

     : replication user

  • -ripple_server_ports

     : comma-separated ports which Ripple will listen

I did not find an option for securing binary log retrieval. The slave can connect to the Ripple server with any credentials. Have this in mind when deploying Ripple in production.

Now, let’s run a simple test. I have two servers. Both running on localhost, one with port 13001 (master) and another one on port 13002 (slave). The command line which I used to start

rippled

 , points to the master. Binary logs are stored in the data directory:

$ ls -l data/
total 14920
-rw-rw-r-- 1 sveta sveta 15251024 Mar 6 01:43 binlog.000000
-rw-rw-r-- 1 sveta sveta 71 Mar 6 00:50 binlog.index

I pointed the slave to the Ripple server with the command

mysql> change master to master_host='127.0.0.1',master_port=15000, master_user='ripple';
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.02 sec)

Then started the slave.

On the master, I created the database

sbtest

  and ran sysbench

oltp_read_write.lua

test for a single table. After some time, I stopped the load and checked the content of the table on master and slave:

master> select count(*) from sbtest1;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
| 10000 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.08 sec)
master> checksum table sbtest1;
+----------------+------------+
| Table | Checksum |
+----------------+------------+
| sbtest.sbtest1 | 4162333567 |
+----------------+------------+
1 row in set (0.11 sec)
slave> select count(*) from sbtest1;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
| 10000 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.40 sec)
slave> checksum table sbtest1;
+----------------+------------+
| Table | Checksum |
+----------------+------------+
| sbtest.sbtest1 | 1797645970 |
+----------------+------------+
1 row in set (0.13 sec)
slave> checksum table sbtest1;
+----------------+------------+
| Table | Checksum |
+----------------+------------+
| sbtest.sbtest1 | 4162333567 |
+----------------+------------+
1 row in set (0.10 sec)

It took some time for the slave to catch up, but everything was applied successfully.

Ripple has nice verbose logging:

$ ./bazel-bin/rippled -ripple_datadir=./data -ripple_master_address=127.0.0.1 -ripple_master_port=13001 -ripple_master_user=root -ripple_server_ports=15000
WARNING: Logging before InitGoogleLogging() is written to STDERR
I0306 15:57:13.641451 27908 rippled.cc:48] InitPlugins
I0306 15:57:13.642007 27908 rippled.cc:60] Setup
I0306 15:57:13.642937 27908 binlog.cc:307] Starting binlog recovery
I0306 15:57:13.644090 27908 binlog.cc:350] Scanning binlog file: binlog.000000
I0306 15:57:13.872016 27908 binlog.cc:417] Binlog recovery complete
binlog file: binlog.000000, offset: 15251088, gtid: 6ddac507-3f90-11e9-8ee9-00163e000000:0-0-7192
I0306 15:57:13.872050 27908 rippled.cc:106] Recovered binlog
I0306 15:57:13.873811 27908 mysql_server_port_tcpip.cc:150] Listen on host: localhost, port: 15000
I0306 15:57:13.874282 27908 rippled.cc:62] Start
I0306 15:57:13.874511 27910 mysql_master_session.cc:181] Master session starting
I0306 15:57:13.882601 27910 mysql_client_connection.cc:148] connected to host: 127.0.0.1, port: 13001
I0306 15:57:13.895349 27910 mysql_master_session.cc:137] Connected to host: 127.0.0.1, port: 13001, server_id: 1, server_name:
W0306 15:57:13.898556 27910 mysql_master_session.cc:197] master does not support semi sync
I0306 15:57:13.898583 27910 mysql_master_session.cc:206] start replicating from '6ddac507-3f90-11e9-8ee9-00163e000000:0-0-7192'
I0306 15:57:13.899031 27910 mysql_master_session.cc:229] Master session entering main loop
I0306 15:57:13.899550 27910 binlog.cc:626] Update binlog position to end_pos: binlog.000000:15251152, gtid: 0-0-7192
I0306 15:57:13.899572 27910 binlog.cc:616] Skip writing event [ Previous_gtids len = 67 ]
I0306 15:57:13.899585 27910 binlog.cc:626] Update binlog position to end_pos: binlog.000000:15251152, gtid: 0-0-7192
...

Conclusion

it may be good to run more tests before using Ripple in production, and to explore its other options, but from a first view it seems to be a very nice and useful product.


Photo by Kishor on Unsplash

Mar
30
2016
--

Docker MySQL Replication 101

Docker

Precona Server DockerIn this blog post, we’ll discuss some of the basics regarding Docker MySQL replication. Docker has gained widespread popularity in recent years as a lightweight alternative to virtualization. It is ideal for building virtual development and testing environments. The solution is flexible and seamlessly integrates with popular CI tools.

 

This post walks through the setup of MySQL replication with Docker using Percona Server 5.6 images. To keep things simple we’ll configure a pair of instances and override only the most important variables for replication. You can add whatever other variables you want to override in the configuration files for each instance.

Note: the configuration described here is suitable for development or testing. We’ve also used the operating system repository packages; for the latest version use the official Docker images. The steps described can be used to setup more slaves if required, as long as each slave has a different server-id.

First, install Docker and pull the Percona images (this will take some time and is only executed once):

# Docker install for Debian / Ubuntu
apt-get install docker.io
# Docker install for Red Hat / CentOS (requires EPEL repo)
yum install epel-release # If not installed already
yum install docker-io
# Pull docker repos
docker pull percona

Now create locally persisted directories for the:

  1. Instance configuration
  2. Data files
# Create local data directories
mkdir -p /opt/Docker/masterdb/data /opt/Docker/slavedb/data
# Create local my.cnf directories
mkdir -p /opt/Docker/masterdb/cnf /opt/Docker/slavedb/cnf
### Create configuration files for master and slave
vi /opt/Docker/masterdb/cnf/config-file.cnf
# Config Settings:
[mysqld]
server-id=1
binlog_format=ROW
log-bin
vi /opt/Docker/slavedb/cnf/config-file.cnf
# Config Settings:
[mysqld]
server-id=2

Great, now we’re ready start our instances and configure replication. Launch the master node, configure the replication user and get the initial replication co-ordinates:

# Launch master instance
docker run --name masterdb -v /opt/Docker/masterdb/cnf:/etc/mysql/conf.d -v /opt/Docker/masterdb/data:/var/lib/mysql -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=mysecretpass -d percona:5.6
00a0231fb689d27afad2753e4350192bebc19ab4ff733c07da9c20ca4169759e
# Create replication user
docker exec -ti masterdb 'mysql' -uroot -pmysecretpass -vvv -e"GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO repl@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'slavepass'G"
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
--------------
GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO repl@"%"
--------------
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
Bye
### Get master status
docker exec -ti masterdb 'mysql' -uroot -pmysecretpass -e"SHOW MASTER STATUSG"
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
*************************** 1. row ***************************
             File: mysqld-bin.000004
         Position: 310
     Binlog_Do_DB:
 Binlog_Ignore_DB:
Executed_Gtid_Set:

If you look carefully at the “docker run” command for masterdb, you’ll notice we’ve defined two paths to share from local storage:

/opt/Docker/masterdb/data:/var/lib/mysql

  • This maps the local “/opt/Docker/masterdb/data” to the masterdb’s container’s “/var/lib/mysql path”
  • All files within the datadir “/var/lib/mysql” persist locally on the host running docker rather than in the container
/opt/Docker/masterdb/cnf:/etc/mysql/conf.d

  • This maps the local “/opt/Docker/masterdb/cnf” directory to the container’s “/etc/mysql/conf.d” path
  • The configuration files for the masterdb instance persist locally as well
  • Remember these files augment or override the file in “/etc/mysql/my.cnf” within the container (i.e., defaults will be used for all other variables)

We’re done setting up the master, so let’s continue with the slave instance. For this instance the “docker run” command also includes the “–link masterdb:mysql” command, which links the slave instance to the master instance for replication.

After starting the instance, set the replication co-ordinates captured in the previous step:

docker run --name slavedb -d -v /opt/Docker/slavedb/cnf:/etc/mysql/conf.d -v /opt/Docker/slavedb/data:/var/lib/mysql --link masterdb:mysql -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=mysecretpass -d percona:5.6
eb7141121300c104ccee0b2df018e33d4f7f10bf5d98445ed4a54e1316f41891
docker exec -ti slavedb 'mysql' -uroot -pmysecretpass -e'change master to master_host="mysql",master_user="repl",master_password="slavepass",master_log_file="mysqld-bin.000004",master_log_pos=310;"' -vvv
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
--------------
change master to master_host="mysql",master_user="repl",master_password="slavepass",master_log_file="mysqld-bin.000004",master_log_pos=310
--------------
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.23 sec)
Bye

Almost ready to go! The last step is to start replication and verify that replication running:

# Start replication
docker exec -ti slavedb 'mysql' -uroot -pmysecretpass -e"START SLAVE;" -vvv
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
--------------
START SLAVE
--------------
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
Bye
# Verify replication is running OK
docker exec -ti slavedb 'mysql' -uroot -pmysecretpass -e"SHOW SLAVE STATUSG" -vvv
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
--------------
SHOW SLAVE STATUS
--------------
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: mysql
                  Master_User: repl
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: mysqld-bin.000004
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 310
               Relay_Log_File: mysqld-relay-bin.000002
                Relay_Log_Pos: 284
        Relay_Master_Log_File: mysqld-bin.000004
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB:
          Replicate_Ignore_DB:
           Replicate_Do_Table:
       Replicate_Ignore_Table:
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error:
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 310
              Relay_Log_Space: 458
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File:
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File:
           Master_SSL_CA_Path:
              Master_SSL_Cert:
            Master_SSL_Cipher:
               Master_SSL_Key:
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error:
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error:
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids:
             Master_Server_Id: 1
                  Master_UUID: 230d005a-f1a6-11e5-b546-0242ac110004
             Master_Info_File: /var/lib/mysql/master.info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for the slave I/O thread to update it
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind:
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp:
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp:
               Master_SSL_Crl:
           Master_SSL_Crlpath:
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set:
            Executed_Gtid_Set:
                Auto_Position: 0
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Bye

Finally, we have a pair of dockerized Percona Server 5.6 master-slave servers replicating!

As mentioned before, this is suitable for a development or testing environment. Before going into production with this configuration, think carefully about the tuning of the “my.cnf” variables and the choice of disks used for the data/binlog directories. It is important to remember that newer versions of Docker recommend using “networks” rather than “linking” for communication between containers.

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