Apr
17
2017
--

The mysqlpump Utility

mysqlpump

mysqlpumpIn this blog, we’ll look at the

mysqlpump

 utility.

mysqlpump

 is a utility that performs logical backups (which means backing up your data as SQL statements instead of a raw copy of data files). It was added in MySQL Server version 5.7.8, and can be used to dump a database or a set of databases to a file and then loaded on another SQL server (not necessarily a MySQL server).

Its usage is similar to

mysqldump

, but it includes a new set of features. Many of the options are the same, but it was written from scratch to avoid being limited to

mysqldump

 compatibility.

The Main Features Include:

  • To make the dump process faster, it allows parallel processing of databases and objects within databases.
  • There are more options to customize your dumps and choose which databases and objects to dump (tables, stored programs, user accounts), using the
    --include-*

     and 

    --exclude-*

     parameters.

  • User accounts can be dumped now as
    CREATE USER

     and

    GRANT

     statements, instead of inserting directly to the MySQL system database.

  • Information between the client and the server can be compressed using the
    --compress

     option. This feature is very useful for remote backups, as it saves bandwidth and transfer time. You can also compress the output file using

    --compress-output

    , which supports ZLIB and LZ4 compression algorithms.

  • It has an estimated progress indicator. This is really useful to check the current status of the dump process. You can see the total amount of rows dumped and the number of databases completed. It also reports an estimate of the total time to complete the dump.
  • Creation of secondary indexes for InnoDB tables happens after data load for shorter load times.

Exclude/Include:

This feature provides more control over customizing your dumps, and filter the data that you need. Using this feature, you can be more selective with the data you want to dump (databases, tables, triggers, events, routines, users) and save file size, process time and transferring time while copying/moving the file to another host.

Keep in mind that there are some options that are mutually exclusive: e.g., if you use the

--all-databases

 option, the

--exclude-databases

  parameter won’t take effect. By default,

mysqlpump

 will not dump the following databases unless you specify them using the

--include-databases

 option:

INFORMATION_SCHEMA

,

performance_schema

,

ndbinfo

  and

sys

.

Values for these options need to be declared by comma-separated listing. Using a “%” as a value for any of the exclude/include options acts as a wildcard. For example, you can dump all databases starting with “t” and “p” by adding the option

--include-databases=t%,p%

  to the command line.

For users, routines, triggers and events,

mysqlpump

 has

--include-*

 and

--exclude-*

 options with similar usage. Some specific notes:

  • Triggers are dumped by default, but you can also filter them using the
    --include-triggers

    /

    --exclude-triggers

     options

  • Routines and events are not dumped by default, and need to be specified in the command line with
    --routines

     and

    --events

    , or the corresponding

    --include

     and 

    --exclude

     options

  • Keep in mind that if a stored procedure and a function have the same name, then include/exclude applies to both

Parallel Processing:

This feature allows you to process several databases, and tables within the databases, in parallel. By default,

mysqlpump

 uses one processing queue with two threads. You can increase the number of threads for this default queue with

--default-parallelism

. Unless you create additional queues, all the databases and/or tables you elect to dump go through the default queue.

To create additional queues you can use the 

--parallel-schemas

 option, which takes two parameters: the number of threads for the queue and the sub-set of databases this queue processes.  As an example, you could run:

mysqlpump --include-databases=a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h --default-parallelism=3 --parallel-schemas=4:a,b

so that schemas c, d, e, f, g and h are processed by the default queue (which uses three threads), and then tables from schemas a and b are processed by a separate queue (that uses four threads). Database names should be included as a comma-separated list:

$ mysqlpump --parallel-schemas=4:example1,example2,example3 --parallel-schemas=3:example4,example5 > examples.sql
Dump progress: 0/1 tables, 250/261184 rows
Dump progress: 24/30 tables, 1204891/17893833 rows
Dump progress: 29/30 tables, 1755611/17893833 rows
Dump progress: 29/30 tables, 2309111/17893833 rows
...
Dump completed in 42424 milliseconds

User Accounts:

User accounts can be dumped using this tool. Here’s a comparison of our Percona Tool

pt-show-grants

 versus

mysqlpump

 to check their differences.

By default,

mysqlpump

 doesn’t dump user account definitions (even while dumping the MySQL database). To include user accounts on the dump, you must specify the

--users

 option.

Here’s an example on how use

mysqlpump

 to get only user accounts dumped to a file:

$ mysqlpump --exclude-databases=% --exclude-triggers=% --users
-- Dump created by MySQL dump utility, version: 5.7.8-rc, linux-glibc2.5 (x86_64)
-- Dump start time: Thu Aug 27 17:10:10 2015
-- Server version: 5.7.8
SET @OLD_UNIQUE_CHECKS=@@UNIQUE_CHECKS, UNIQUE_CHECKS=0;
SET @OLD_FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=@@FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS, FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=0;
SET @OLD_TIME_ZONE=@@TIME_ZONE;
SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00';
SET @OLD_CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT=@@CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT;
SET @OLD_CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS=@@CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS;
SET @OLD_COLLATION_CONNECTION=@@COLLATION_CONNECTION;
SET NAMES utf8;
CREATE USER 'msandbox'@'127.%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*6C387FC3893DBA1E3BA155E74754DA6682D04747' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'msandbox'@'127.%';
CREATE USER 'msandbox_ro'@'127.%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*6C387FC3893DBA1E3BA155E74754DA6682D04747' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT SELECT, EXECUTE ON *.* TO 'msandbox_ro'@'127.%';
CREATE USER 'msandbox_rw'@'127.%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*6C387FC3893DBA1E3BA155E74754DA6682D04747' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER, SHOW DATABASES, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, LOCK TABLES, EXECUTE ON *.* TO 'msandbox_rw'@'127.%';
CREATE USER 'rsandbox'@'127.%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*B07EB15A2E7BD9620DAE47B194D5B9DBA14377AD' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'rsandbox'@'127.%';
CREATE USER 'furrywall'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*AB8D50A9E3B8D1F3ACE85C54736B5BF472B44539' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT LOCK;
GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'furrywall'@'localhost';
CREATE USER 'msandbox'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*6C387FC3893DBA1E3BA155E74754DA6682D04747' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'msandbox'@'localhost';
CREATE USER 'msandbox_ro'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*6C387FC3893DBA1E3BA155E74754DA6682D04747' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT SELECT, EXECUTE ON *.* TO 'msandbox_ro'@'localhost';
CREATE USER 'msandbox_rw'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*6C387FC3893DBA1E3BA155E74754DA6682D04747' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER, SHOW DATABASES, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, LOCK TABLES, EXECUTE ON *.* TO 'msandbox_rw'@'localhost';
CREATE USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*6C387FC3893DBA1E3BA155E74754DA6682D04747' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;
CREATE USER 'testuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*6E543F385210D9BD42A4FDB4BB23FD2C31C95462' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE INTERVAL 30 DAY ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'testuser'@'localhost';
SET TIME_ZONE=@OLD_TIME_ZONE;
SET CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT=@OLD_CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT;
SET CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS=@OLD_CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS;
SET COLLATION_CONNECTION=@OLD_COLLATION_CONNECTION;
SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=@OLD_FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS;
SET UNIQUE_CHECKS=@OLD_UNIQUE_CHECKS;
-- Dump end time: Thu Aug 27 17:10:10 2015
Dump completed in 823 milliseconds

As you can see, above the tool makes sure the session uses known values for timezone and character sets. This won’t affect users, it’s part of the dump process to ensure correctness while restoring on the destination.

Comparing it with

pt-show-grants

 from Percona Toolkit, we can see that 

mysqlpump

 dumps the

CREATE USER

  information as well. The statements produced by

mysqlpump

 are the right thing to run to recreate users (and should be the preferred method), especially because of the

sql_mode

 NO_AUTO_CREATE_USERS. If enabled, it renders

pt-show-grants

 useless.

Here’s an example of

pt-show-grants

 usage:

$ pt-show-grants --host 127.0.0.1 --port 5708 --user msandbox --ask-pass
Enter password:
-- Grants dumped by pt-show-grants
-- Dumped from server 127.0.0.1 via TCP/IP, MySQL 5.7.8-rc at 2015-08-27 17:06:52
-- Grants for 'furrywall'@'localhost'
GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'furrywall'@'localhost';
-- Grants for 'msandbox'@'127.%'
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'msandbox'@'127.%';
-- Grants for 'msandbox'@'localhost'
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'msandbox'@'localhost';
-- Grants for 'msandbox_ro'@'127.%'
GRANT EXECUTE, SELECT ON *.* TO 'msandbox_ro'@'127.%';
-- Grants for 'msandbox_ro'@'localhost'
GRANT EXECUTE, SELECT ON *.* TO 'msandbox_ro'@'localhost';
-- Grants for 'msandbox_rw'@'127.%'
GRANT ALTER, CREATE, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, DELETE, DROP, EXECUTE, INDEX, INSERT, LOCK TABLES, SELECT, SHOW DATABASES, UPDATE ON *.* TO 'msandbox_rw'@'127.%';
-- Grants for 'msandbox_rw'@'localhost'
GRANT ALTER, CREATE, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, DELETE, DROP, EXECUTE, INDEX, INSERT, LOCK TABLES, SELECT, SHOW DATABASES, UPDATE ON *.* TO 'msandbox_rw'@'localhost';
-- Grants for 'root'@'localhost'
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;
GRANT PROXY ON ''@'' TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;
-- Grants for 'rsandbox'@'127.%'
GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'rsandbox'@'127.%';
-- Grants for 'testuser'@'localhost'
GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'testuser'@'localhost';

Some Miscellaneous Notes:

  • One of the differences with
    mysqldump

     is that

    mysqlpump

     adds 

    CREATE DATABASE

     statements to the dump by default, unless specified with the

    --no-create-db

    option.

    • There’s an important difference on the dump process that is closely related: it includes the database name while adding the
      CREATE TABLE

       statement. This causes a problem when trying to use the tool to create a duplicate.

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